Ceramic membranes were first installed 15 years ago on full scale systems because of their mechanical and chemical stability. More favorable economics of organic membranes led to their widespread application in hundreds of installations world-wide. However, challenges concerning fiber breakage of organic membranes and the control of irreversible fouling resulted in a revived interest in ceramic materials due to their benefits related to physical breakage and vigorous chemical cleaning. Because in-line coagulation has been shown effective even on ultrafiltration (UF) membranes to treat poor quality surface water, a pilot study was conducted to assess the removal capacity of the combination of coagulation and ceramic membranes in the treatment of higher concentrations of organics as typically found in surface waters. The pilot plant included one industrial size ceramic membrane element to treat surface water at the Lovoe Treatment plant in Stockholm, and included flocculation, settling, rapid and slow sand filtration process. Because coagulation is very fast and aggregates rapidly reach sizes retained by the membranes, the necessary basin volume for destabilization, floc formation and separation was greatly reduced. Detailed results of the various pilot runs are given, showing the relationship between coagulation conditions, treated water characteristics and membrane performance. An economical analysis in comparison with the conventional treatment plant and possible upgrade alternatives is also provided. A parallel test was initated to compare ceramic MF for RO pre-treatment, both for water reuse and as desalination pre-treatment. Results for these applications and cost considerations are presented.
This presentation is available to AMTA Members only.
- Gareth Milton, PhD
- Black & Veatch Corporation
- AMTA Biennial Conference, Las Vegas, NV
- Biennial Conference
- Ceramic membranes, flocculation for organic matter removal, In-line coagulation, organics removal, Iron residuals, pH adjustment, Flux optimization, Backwash procedures, RO pre-treatment, Lovoe Treatment plant