The use of alternative, lower quality sources, such as brackish groundwater, saline surface water, and recycled wastewater (i.e., for potable reuse) are rapidly becoming an integral component of long-term portfolio planning, and all nearly all of these alternative supplies require desalination. However, in many areas, particularly inland locations, concentrate management options may be limited due the lack of a suitable receiving body, environmental regulations, and/or permitting restrictions. Although zero liquid discharge (ZLD) technology has the potential to overcome all of these barriers, the process has historically been viewed as very cost-prohibitive. However, a new examination of conventional ZLD (i.e., the combination of brine concentrators and crystalizers) has demonstrated that in some cases the process can be applied at more manageable costs that may enable more widespread use.
This presentation is available to AMTA Members only.
- Brent Alspach, PE, BCEE
- AMTA/SWMOA Technology Transfer Workshop, Albuquerque, NM
- AMTA/SWMOA Technology Transfer Workshop
- Desalination, Concentrate Management, Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD)