Ammonium perchlorate, a chemical used primarily as a rocket fuel or propellant, has been detected in a growing number of ground water sources in California and at least 14 other states. Perchlorate has adverse health impacts even at very low concentrations (1 ppb to 4 ppb).Three treatment technologies are considered effective treatment. Ion exchange (IX) and reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate perchlorate into a waste stream. Biological reduction reduces the perchlorate to chloride without the production of residuals requiring special handling. The paper presents results from a unique hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR).
This presentation is available to AMTA Members only.
- Reid Bowman
- Applied Process Technology, Inc.
- AMTA Biennial Conference, Anaheim, CA
- Biennial Conference
- MBfR, nitrate, perchlorate