Forward osmosis (FO) represent a low-fouling alternative compared to pressure-driven membrane processes, particularly as a pretreatment step for challenging feed waters. Thus, in practical applications, FO membrane fouling is anticipated. This work demonstrates for the first time that a membrane-independent limiting flux exists with fouled FO membranes. While the limiting water flux reaches a maximum value that cannot be overcome by increasing the draw solution osmotic pressure, reverse salt flux continually increases. Thus, there is a drawback when excessive osmotic pressures are applied. These results suggest that future FO developments should focus on operating parameters and fouling mitigation rather than membrane properties.
This presentation is available to AMTA Members only.
- Christopher P. Morrow, PhD / Amy E. Childress
- University of Southern California
- AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA
- AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference
- Additional Technology, Forward Osmosis