This paper compares brine minimization processes and examines the level of brine reduction that can be achieved, the limiting factors for brine minimization using membrane systems, and the advantages and disadvantages, operability and the relative economics of both the membrane and thermal process alternatives. Strategies for minimizing the treatment costs and evaluation of critical selection criteria are also examined.
This presentation is available to AMTA Members only.
- Kurt Kiefer, P.E., BCEE
- CDM Smith Inc.
- AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference, San Antonio, TX
- AMTA/AWWA Membrane Technology Conference
- concentrate, ZLD, brine minimization